Introduction to Ubuntu One

Ubuntu One is the new trending app which caters 5 GB (free) online storage space to the users, popularly known as “Ubuntu Personal Cloud”. This App is very similar to the existing Apps like iCloud, Google Music, Skydrive, Live Mesh etc. For your information, the codes at the client side of the application is written in the language called ‘Python’ and this Apps works on operating systems like Ubuntu, Windows, iOS and Android. See the comparison between Ubuntu Cloud and Apple iCloud.

Just one apps for all devices.

How to set up proxy authorization in Ubuntu Linux

If your net connection is proxy authenticated or needs username and password to a connect to the net, then you need to configure the network settings to access the internet. When there are proxy settings and username & password are required for internet, here are the few simple steps to setup the proxy authorization for Ubuntu.

1. Goto Terminal and type sudo nautilus.
2. A folder window will appear, from there go to filesystem->etc->apt->apt.conf 
3. Type the following  
http://<proxy address> <username>:<password>@<proxy address>:<port number>

e.g. admin:adminpassword@ 

If you have any queries, do post below as comments....

Ubuntu 12.04 installation. Dual boot with Windows

The wait for Ubuntu 12.04 (Precise Pangolin) has come to an end. If you want to experience the Ubuntu 12.04 environment, you can download its iso file from here and install it comfortably by following a few steps. Installing Ubuntu 12.04 is all the same as installing any of the other versions of Ubuntu with just a touch changed GUI.

To install Ubuntu 12.04 you must have at least 10GB of free space as a pre-requisite .The steps given here can also be used to dual boot Ubuntu 12.04 and Windows 7.To dual boot Ubuntu 12.04 and Windows OS, first you got to empty any one of your drives having at least 10GB of total capacity. Then format it to make it free (shown as green is Disk Management in Windows). Ubuntu 12.04 can be dual booted with Window 7, XP or Vista. Given here are the step-by-step instructions to install Ubuntu 12.04 along with relevant screenshots.

Step by step instruction  for Ubuntu installation -

1) Boot from a boot-able Ubuntu USB or CD(DVD is recommended).

Select Install Ubuntu 
2) The following Ubuntu screen will appear.

Ubuntu 12.04 installation step 2.
Leave the "Install this third party software" option unchecked as you can download this software later on and Continue

3) The following window will appear. If you select the option "Erase disk and install Ubuntu", the already installed OS gets deleted/erased and Ubuntu's installation gets underway. In case you want to dual boot Ubuntu 12.04 select the option "Something else".

Step 3 of Ubuntu 12.04 installation.
4) Then the following window appears. In this window select the disk drive in which you intend to install the Ubuntu 12.04.In this window, a drive is shown as free space. Select the drive and click on change option.

Step 4: Select the drive in which Ubuntu has to be installed
In the options, "Device for boot loader Installation" select the master hard-drive of your system(usually it does not require any change).

5) After clicking on change option, the following window will appear.
Step 5: Set the drive size here.
Define the size of the partition (8GB is recommended). In the “Use as” option select “Ext4 journaling file system”, the latest file system in Linux and then select mount point as “/“. Press OK.

6) The next window which you will see, appears the same as the window in step 4. The only addition here the sticking up of the Ext4 and "/" at their respective positions ie, in the Type and Mount point columns ( corresponding to the drive you have selected) . Make sure you have these options next to your selected drive else you got to check your taken steps again. Once sure, click on "Install Now".

Note: The method shown above is a simple guide. You can also create additional partitions if you want, namely, /boot, /home, etc. In that case, you will have to divide your available free space accordingly. Normally, "/" should be given around 8GB space as all the installed packages go into it and remaining space can be given to other partitions.

8) Now, you will be asked to select the time zone and keyboard layout of your system.

9) In the last window, give the name and password of your system(you need to give an alphanumeric password and obviously remember it for future use) and after this click "Next".

10) With this your Ubuntu installation is done!!. Reboot and you shall see the Grub menu at the start, allowing you to choose the OS from which you want to boot up.

Note: About the Swap partition, now a days laptops and desktop come with a large RAM, it is not advisable to use swap partition. Just try to keep things simple, swap partition can be created later on.

See here how to create Swap partition.

If you find yourself stuck at any of the steps mentioned above, do post your queries as comments here.

Linux download

For Linux download, you need to decide which Linux distribution you want. There are about 200 Linux distributions in the market. As Linux comes under GNU General Public License, it is free to download. Linus Torvalds initiated the development of the Linux kernel. He is the chief architect of the Linux kernel and currently works as the project coordinator. He has also developed Git, a revision control system and the Scuba diving log book software Subsurface. Here, you will get the link to download the top 5 Linux distros

Linux, being a kernel, is basically the program which connects the hardware to the application. Most of the Linux-based applications are free to download. As Linux is free to download, there are various misconceptions about Linux. You might be also interested in Top 5 Myths about Linux. The main difference between different Linux distribution is that each Linux distribution has a different GUI, different applications that come in-built, different support system, different mechanism that support the distributionf and a different software download center.
Linux Download
The top 5 Linux distributions are -

2) Debian ( Debian download )
3) Fedora ( Fedora Download
4) OpenSUSE ( OpenSUSE Download)
5) Linux Mint (Linux Mint Download)

Installation process for all the Linux distribution is more or less the same. After downloading the Linux distibution, you can either burn a CD or install it through a bootable USB device. See here how to make bootable USB. Insert the bootable USB or CD at system startup and in the boot option select the device. If you are planning for dual booting Ubuntu and Windows then see here Dual boot Ubuntu and Windows.

Lecture 28 : Final project

A lecture on Programming Methodology by Mehran Sahami, Stanford University.


This can be used as a guide for final project presentation.

Go back to Lecture list.

Lecture 27 : What next?


What after Java and options are available in this series.

Next lecture: Final project.               

Go back to Lecture list.

Lecture 26 : Non standard programming


A quick introduction to non standard java programming and books for further Java studies.

Next chapter: Advance Java

Go back to Lecture list.

Lecture 25 : Project on face pamphlet in Java


Instructions to make face pamphlet programming in Java.

Next chapter: Non standard Java function

Go back to Lecture list.

Lecture 24 : Data Structures


A tutorial on Data Structures in Java.

Next chapter: Java project detail (face pamphlet)

Go back to Lecture list.

Lecture 23 : Searching and sorting


A tutorial on searching and sorting algorithm implementation in Java.

Next chapter: Data structure

Go back to Lecture list.

Lecture 22 : Simple Java assignment


A Java assignment to make you familiar with Java programming. 

Next chapter: Searching and sorting

Go back to Lecture list.

Lecture 21 : Interactions


An introduction to interactions in Java.

Next chapter: Java assignment

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Lecture 20 : Java GUI (Graphical user interface)


An introduction to Java GUI (Graphical user interface).

Next chapter:  Interactions
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Lecture 19 : Introduction to Interfaces


A brief elaboration on interfaces in Java.

Next chapter: Java GUI ( Graphical user interface)

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Lecture 18 : Debugging process


An introduction to debugging in Java.

Next chapter:  Interfaces

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Lecture 17 : Brief introduction to array list


Detailed information regarding arrays in Java.

Next chapter: Debugging

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Lecture 16 : Introduction to arrays


A brief introduction to arrays in Java.

Next chapter: Brief introduction to array list

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Lecture 15 : Introduction to file handling


A brief introduction to file handling in Java.

Next chapter:  Array

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Lecture 14 : Java memory allocation


An introduction to Java memory allocation while programming.

Next chapter:  Introduction to Java file handling

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Lecture 13 : Introduction to string processing and characters


A brief introduction to string processing and characters in Java.

Next Chapter: An introduction to Java memory allocation

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Lecture 12 : A brief introduction to Java enumeration


An introduction to Java enumeration and its uses in programming.

Next chapter: Introduction to string processing and characters

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Lecture 11: GObjects, GImage, Gcompound and Gpolygons


Introduction to GObjects, GImage, Gcompound, and Gpolygons

Next chapter: A brief introduction to Java enumeration

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Lecture 10 : Classes, constructors, instance variables, setters, strings and Gracs


Brief introduction to classes, constructors, instance variables, setters, strings and Gracs

Next chapter: Indroduction to GObjects, GImage, Gcompound, and Gpolygons

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Lecture 9 : Brief introduction to strings


Detailed information of use of strings in Java.

Next chapter: Brief introduction to classes, constructors, instance variables, setters, strings and Gracs

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Lecture 8 : Details of functions and methods


Detailed information on functions and methods in Java.

Next chapter:Brief introduction to strings

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Lecture 7 : Java loops, functions, methods and returning


A brief introduction to Java loops, functions, methods and returns.

Next chapter: Details of functions and methods

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Lecture 6 : Expressions, variables, conditions and different loops


A tutorial on different expressions, variables, conditions and different loops in Java.               
Next chapter: Continue with Java loops, function, methods and returning 
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Java video tutorial series

Java tutorial series

This is a complete series of Java tutorial video lectures to give a brief idea of Java. This series consists of 28 video lectures to make you an expert in Java programming. This Java tutorial is Stanford University's Java session recording and it covers all the basic aspects of Java, with the help of which you can create some awesome stuff. This series covers only core Java and not Advance Java.  

Java tutorial.

2) Lecture 2 : Basic commands in Java

4) Lecture 4: A simple Java program

12) Lecture 12: Enumeration

14) Lecture 14: Memory allocation

15) Lecture 15: Java file handling

16) Lecture 16: Arrays

17) Lecture 17: Array lists

18) Lecture 18: Debugging 

19) Lecture 19 : Interfaces 

21) Lecture 21: Interactions

22) Lecture 22: Simple Java assignment

23) Lecture 23: Searching and sorting

24) Lecture 24: Data structures

27) Lecture 27: What next??

28) Lecture 28: Final project

Interested in more Watch out more enginerring video lectures.  

Lecture 5 : Graphics, objects, classes and variables in Java


A brief introduction to graphics, objects, classes and variables in Java.

Next chapter: Expressions, variable, conditions and loops

Go back to Lecture list

Lecture 4 : Introduction to simple programming


A simple Java program to make you familiar with Java programming.

Next chapter: Graphics, objects, classes and variables

Go back to Lecture list

Lecture 3 : Errors, comments and advance instructions in Java


Learn how to detect errors and debug them. Also get to know commenting in Java and advance instructions in Java.

 Next chapter: Introduction to simple Java program

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Lecture 2 : Basic commands


Basic commands and features of Java.

Next chapter: Common errors, comments and advance instructions

Go back to Lecture list

Lecture 1 : Introduction to Java programming


A quick introduction to Java and the topic that will be covered in this video lectures series.

Next chapter: Basic commands in Java

Go back to Lecture list

Ubuntu cloud vs Apple iCloud

Today we’re going to talk about Ubuntu cloud, codename Openstack and Apple iCloud. Yes, the latest innovation by Apple, which was introduced with the iPhone 4S at the “Let’s Talk iPhone” event.
Apple iCloud logo

iCloud lets you to sync all your music you purchase from iTunes to the cloud and then you can access it anywhere from any iDevice, be it a Mac, an iPhone, an iPod or an iPad. That’s not all, even the apps you buy from the AppStore, say for example, Angry Birds, will be automatically installed and synced to all the other mobile devices you have connected to the internet at that very instant. Also, the pictures, documents, videos, and other media you allow, will be uploaded to the cloud and you can access them from all of your iDevices and PC too. Like you make a calendar entry on your iPhone, it automatically synchronizes to your account on the cloud and pushes it back on all the devices you have registered with iCloud. You take a picture on your iPad, the next moment you’ll have it on every other iDevice of yours. You get the air. So, it’s pretty cool, eh?
Ubuntu cloud

However, it turns out, Apple stole it. Again, I mean, technically they have stolen the idea behind that but then they bought CloudMe, and they had all the rights with them.

Turns out also, that this idea was first brought out by guys at Canonical. Yes, the same people who gifted the world with Ubuntu. And that cloud service was available for the first time in Ubuntu with Ubuntu One, a built-in cloud file client.

Ubuntu allows you to do just everything the now hyped iCloud does, for the last two years! You’re allotted 5 GB of data in the cloud. iCloud offers the same now. Above that, you’ll have to shell out money as per the plan you opt for. Ubuntu One service is accessible via many mobile device, since there are dedicated clients for Android and iOS devices, whereas clients for WP7S are under works.
The Ubuntu Cloud feature was first released with Ubuntu 9.10. There’s also Windows Ubuntu One client for those who use Linux and Windows as well. The application programming interfaces (APIs) are also publicly available now.

If you opt for the paid Ubuntu One Music Streaming service in addition to music streaming, you’ll get an additional 20 GB of storage for $3.99/month. Each fresh addition of 20 GB data henceforth will be charged at $2.99/month.
The newest cloud client with Ubuntu is in Ubuntu 12.04 which has integrated OpenStack for all their cloud computing needs. 
I recommend all readers to try Ubuntu One and avail the benefits of having it for free.


Add/create user in Ubuntu

Add/Create User in Ubuntu

To add a user to Ubuntu you need to login as administrator. Adding a User can be done through command line as well as through graphical method.

To create a user through command line see create user to Linux. This method is applied to all the Linux distros.

Adding a user in Ubuntu through graphical method can be done in the following manner:

1) In Unity dash(the topmost button on the right panel), search for User Accounts (for Ubuntu 11.04 and above. For previous versions, go to Application -> User Accounts).

2) The following window will appear.

User Accounts

Click on  Unlock option at the top to Unlock the window.

3) Now click on '+' button present at the bottom left side.

4) In the appearing window, select the account type as per your choice and assign a user name. Click on "Create" button.
Give the user account name

4) Next, you will see a window with "Password" option. Now click on "Account disabled" in front of it. The window shown below will appear.

Give password for the User account of Ubuntu

5) Give the password, confirm it and click on Change button. Your user account will be enabled and you can login with this account on your next login.

Linux group administration commands

Linux Group Administration

A collection of users is called as group. Each Linux group contains a unique ID value called GID. Information of a Linux group is found in "/etc/group" database file.

In Linux we have 2 types of groups available -

1) Primary Group : The user in this group can access all the resources with default permissions and have full access to all the resources.

2) Secondary group : The users in this group have limited access to the resources which is decided by the admin, who is one of the users in the primary group.

According to User Private Group (UPG) scheme, if we create any user, a primary group will be created with the same user name. Apart from that, we can also create a group manually. 

In group administration we use the following four commands -

1) groupadd  2) groupmod  3) groupdel  4) gpasswd

Lets take a look at each of them -

1) groupadd : With this command we can create a group account. If you want to create the group account with default options, the syntax is

$groupadd [-g ]  [-o] [-r] [-f] group 

-g --gid : This is the group id no and it must be unique. It must be above then 500 as 0-499 is reserved for system account.
- o --non-unique : This allows to add a group with non-unique GID.
-r --system : This allows to create a system user group.
-f : Force create

 e.g. $groupadd -g 888 employee

2)groupmod : The groupmod command modifies the system account files. It's syntax is,

$groupmod [-g ] [-o] [-n  ] group
e.g. $groupmod -g 999 sales
       $groupmod -n newsales sales

3) gpasswd : This command is used to do the following tasks -
                       i) Assign the password to the group.
                      ii) Add or remove the secondary users of the group.

It's syntax is,
$gpasswd <options> <group-name>

-a : To add single user 
 e.g. $gpasswd -a sales
-d: To delete a user
e.g. $gpasswd -d sales
-M : To add multiple users at a time
e.g. $gpasswd -M ul, ul1, ul2

4) groupdel : If the group is empty or if it is a secondary user group, then it can be deleted by the admin using this command. If the group has single primary user then you delete the group account. 
Its syntax is,

$groupdel <group-name>

Also see - Linux User administration

Linux user administration commands

Linux User Administration

Linux is a multi user and multitasking OS. In Linux, you can create any number of user account and groups. A user is always connected to a particular group and there can be any number of groups as well.

The user home directory by default is created under "/home" directory with the user name. e.g. User sun has home directory "/home/sun", the mail account is created under "/var/spool/mail/".

Each user and group in the system is identified by a unique no called as ID.

There are two types of user:

1) System users 
2) Normal users

The system users have ID values from 0 to 499  & the normal users can have ID values from 500 to 60,000.

The users and groups are maintained by the four databases files. These are:

1) /etc/passwd : This databases file maintains the user information like UID, GID, User name etc.
2) /etc/shadow : This file maintains user password related information like uname, encrypted pwd, etc. The pwd's are encrypted in the pwd binary file. To encrypt the passwords, MD5sum, DES algorithms are used.
3) /etc/group : It maintains group related information like group name, GID, etc.
4) /etc/gshadow : It maintains the group password related information. 

User administration :

For user administration five commands are used.

1) useradd : This command is used to create a new user with default values.
$useradd <options> <user-name>

where the options can be,

-U = User id
-g = group ID (primary)
-G = group ID (secondary)
-c = comment
-d = directory 
-s  = shell 
-f  = inactive days
-e = expire date (YYYY MM DD)
2) usermod : This command is used to modify the user accounts. Only the administrator can use this command. It's syntax is,
$usermod <options> <user-name>
where the options can be,        

-l = to change the user name
-L = to lock the user account
-U = to unlock the user account

3) passwd :  This command is used to generate the passwords for users account.
$passwd < user-name> 
To disable a password,
$passwd -d <user-name>

4) userdel : This command is used to delete a user account.
$userdel <user-name>

5) change : This command is used to change the password expiry information. 
$chage <user name>

Ubuntu TV: Technical specifications and requirements

Ubuntu TV specification

Ubuntu TV on Samsung

Ubuntu TV technical specifications and requirements are as follows:

1) Ubuntu TV supports ARM and x86 architecture.
2) Minimum disk space required for Ubuntu TV is 2GB.
3) At least 1 GB of RAM  is required for smooth functioning.
4) Minimum video requirement is 512 MB.
5) It supports HDMI and CEC.
6) It has support for digital audio.
7) It supports high definition video at 1080 pixels.
8) Network connectivity: Gigabit Ethernet & Wireless b/g/n.
9) It has USB host support.

Also see : Ubuntu TV  features

Ubuntu TV cartoon

Ubuntu launches Ubuntu TV : TV for human beings

Ubuntu TV

Ubuntu is displaying a prototype unit, called Ubuntu on TV at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. While the TV market growth is expected to reach $265 billion in 2016, Ubuntu TV is already giving Google and Apple a nightmare.
Ubuntu TV

The features of Ubuntu TV are -

1) All TV
Ubuntu TV will be broadcasted  in the United States and the EU. As per the standard formats, the picture quality can be of the standard of high definition, with integrated electronic program guides.

2) Cable and satellite options
Include your local cable or satellite TV in Ubuntu TV, to get a unique customer experience. Ubuntu TV will bridge the gap between TV manufacturers and cable or satellite service providers.

3) Unlimited online entertainment
Online entertainment content providers can be integrated to Ubuntu TV which provide a wide diversity of entertainment.

4) Better visualization
Second screen options provide viewers to watch the TV without any distraction. Phones or tablets can be connected to the Ubuntu TV. It  provides information about the movies, the director's name, or the reaction of Tweeters during live shows.

Ubuntu TV : Supports multiple devices
5) Smart search
The wealth of online content has left the audience overwhelmed by choice. To simplify and streamline the experience, users can prioritize the channels and shows that they want to watch. The TV also gives out suggestions on user taste. Ubuntu TV puts world at your fingertips with a simple and neat interface.  

6) Pick up where you left
Viewers can enjoy viewing TV on multiple devices - phones, tablets, and the TV itself. With Ubuntu TV, they can start up from where they have left off on a different device. Viewers can watch a part of movie on one device and the other part on another without searching for where they have left.

7) The sharing across devices
Ubuntu TV apps are available for iOS and Android. Movies and music can be shared between TV and other devices using personal cloud service, Ubuntu One.

See also : Ubuntu TV specification and requirements

Ubuntu TV : Channel list

File filters commands in Linux

Linux distributions come with various powerful file filtering commands. You can get fast results just with the help of some simple commands.

Different file filter commands used in Linux are as follows: 

1) wc: 
To see the no of characters in a file - $wc - c <file name>
To see the no of words in a file - $wc -w <file name>
To see the no of lines in a file - $wc -l <file name>
To see the no of lines, words, characters at a time - $wc <file name>

2) Pipe ( | ) :
We can carry out piping between two commands. Here, the standard output of first command is taken as the standard input for the second command.
<Command1> | <command2>   e.g. $ll | wc

3) head :
To see the top 10 lines of a file - $head <file name>
To see the top 5 lines of a file - $head -5 <file name>  

4) tail :
To see last 10 lines of a file - $tail < file name>
To see last 20 lines of a file - $tail -20 <file name> 

5) more
To see the contents of a file in the form of page views - $more <file name>
e.g . $more f1.txt
6) sed : 
It is used to cut the information horizontally.
To see the first line in file sun, 
$sed -n 1p sun
To see 3 to 5 lines
$sed -n '3,5p' sun

7) grep
To search a pattern of word in a file, grep file is used.
syntax $grep < word name> < file name>
$grep hi file_1  
To search multiple words in a file
$grep -E ' word1|word2|word3|' <file name>
e.g. $grep -E 'hi|beyond|good' file_1

8) sort
This command is used to sort the file .
$sort  <file name>
e.g.: $sort file_1
To sort the files in reverse order
$sort -r <file name>

To display only files  
$ll | grep "^-"
To display only directories
$ll | grep "^d"

Shortcut keys for Linux terminal comand line

Developers and programmers use the terminal quite often. Here we present some basic terminal shortcuts which will save a lot of your time and help you execute commands faster.

Shortcut keys to manage the terminal:
1) Alt + F10 = maximize
2) Alt + F5  =  restore
3) Ctrl + Shift + t = open new tab in the terminal
4) F11 = Enable or disable full screen
5) Ctrl + Shift + '+' = Zoom in
6) Ctrl +  '-'  = Zoom out
7) Ctrl + 0 = Normal Size
8) Ctrl + Shift + n = opens a new terminal window

Command line Editing: 
1) Ctrl + a = Move to the beginning of the line
2) Ctrl + e = Move to the end of the line
3) Ctrl + b = Move one char back
4) Ctrl + f = Move the one char forward
5) Ctrl + c = Kill the current command in the terminal
6) Ctrl + m = Execute the command without pressing enter
7) Ctrl + P = Display the previous command
8) Ctrl + n = Display the next command

Some Linux commands:
1) pwd : To see the current working directory
2) ls : To list the files and directories
3) ls -l : To list files along with attributes and file permissions
4) ls -a : List the files along with hidden files (In Linux all the hidden files starts with .(dot))
5) tree : To see the directory information in tree structure

Wild cards:
1) ll i* : To display all the files that start with i character.
2) ll *log* : To list the files having log characters 5 char file
3) ll *c* : To list the files containing 'c' in them
4) ll *.c  : To list the files with .c extension only
5) ll [a-m]* : To list the files having filename beginning with characters from 'a' to 'm'
6) Ctrl + l or clear : To clear the screen